list of code complexity metrics

Microsoft’s Visual Studio provides support for measuring these metrics and several more. This metrics include the following − 1. To answer these questions, we need to measure the time complexity of algorithms. In fact, the sheer number of them can sometimes be overwhelming. The following list shows the code metrics results that Visual Studio calculates: 1. Trust me when I tell you that a value of 20 for this index does not represent “good maintainability”. A green rating is between 20 and 100 and indicates that the code has good maintainability. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. Is the source code more tightly coupled today than it was last week? Increase your Code Review efficiency. See the below code and run a metric for that. Cyclomatic Complexity – This measure can be calculated for many different languages and has been used for decades. ©2021 C# Corner. Afferent Coupling – Inbound coupling from types outside of the assembly. In my experience these have limited usefulness, since code coverage is rarely meaningful in its raw % form. Tools like NDepend (see below) make it easy to segment the analysis of your own code from included or generated code (Visual Studio’s support for these metrics does not, except at the project level). Refactor the violating code to not use labels instead. The maintainability index metric can be used as an overall quality indicator and this index will be calculated with combination of cyclomatic complexity and lines of code metric results. What’s more meaningful is seeing a breakdown of test coverage compared to defect density or code complexity. Complexity Metrics are also used to control the quality of development projects which have been outsourced to other companies. Here are a few I find particularly useful (in addition to the ones listed above). Each function has a minimum complexity of 1. Customer Satisfaction How much grossly repetitive code is there? So, the cyclomatic complexity for this program is 3. Cyclomatic number V of a connected graph G is the number of linearly independent paths in the graph or number of regions in a planar graph. Learn why high complexity implies low code quality, measuring complexity, and preventing it. I haven’t personally used it much, but NDepend has built-in support for calculating it. Rails - checks specific to the Rails API Full disclosure, as a Microsoft MVP I’ve received a free license for NDepend (and, for that matter, Visual Studio). High TypeRank types should generally be the most well-tested and best designed, since bugs in these types will tend to have higher impact on the application. Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric used to measure the complexity of a program. These rules can be set up similar to compiler errors and warnings, depending on their severity. > blanks), especially for a specific targeted class is one of the many metrics to evaluate code quality. Larger numbers frequently correspond to methods that are more difficult to maintain. Code complexity metrics are used to locate complex code. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. Assessing the quality of software can be a difficult, often subjective process. Resources for measuring and assessing software quality. Some common software metrics (discussed later) are:- Source lines of code. Relational Cohesion – Average number of internal relationships per type. As a developer, when you are developing applications, how optimistic are you about delivering quality code? The different metrics make sense at different levels of abstraction within an application: Maintainability Index – Microsoft’s index that ranges from 0 to 100, where higher values indicate better maintainability. Lines of Code might well be a measure of code quality, if it was indeed being assessed at the level of a code module. developer can adapt his code when recommended values are exceeded. The built-in rule looks at the average for methods with at least three lines of code. Customer Problems 4. If you ran a metrics, lines of code result is 4. These metrics measure the complexity of the software design, size or documentation created. Number of Variables – The number of variables declared within a method. Halstead’s method [6, 11] is based on the mathematical relationships among the number of variables, the complexity of the code, and the type of … Method Rank – Similar to Type rank (and Google Page Rank), MethodRank can be used to identify the methods that are of greatest importance to an application. Beyond the simple % number for code coverage, NDepend provides many built-in queries to help you get more out of your code coverage data: NDepend supports a code metrics view that offers a treemap of the analyzed code (either in its GUI, or within Visual Studio as shown below). Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. Efferent Coupling – Outbound coupling, determined by the number of types outside an assembly that are used by child types of the assembly. The following metrics measure the complexity of executable code within procedures. I got the result as cyclomatic complexity is 12 for just of 5 lines of code. GetFormattedEmployeeDetails(Employee employee), (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.FirstName) && string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.LastName)), (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Address1) && string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Address2) &&, string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Address3) && string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.City) &&, string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Country) && string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Zipcode)), (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Email)), (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(employee.Phone)), EmployeeBusinessService employeeBusinessService =. Time complexity represents the number of times a statement is executed . To ease our work, several types of static analysis tools are available in the market which helps to analyze the code during the development and detect fatal defects early in the SDLC phase. It’s not that interesting what your code coverage percentage is, but if it’s staying steady or improving, that’s good. Complexity (complexity) It is the Cyclomatic Complexity calculated based on the number of paths through the code. Topics include a recommended LabVIEW code complexity metric, information on how this metric can be translated to a more traditional code complexity metric used with text-based languages, and information on how NI derived its recommendations. See the Cognitive Complexity White Paperfor a complete descriptio… Background Tasks Made Easy With Hangfire And .Net 5, How To Calculate The Sum Of A Table Column In Angular 10, How To integrate Dependency Injection In Azure Functions, How To Integrate Application Insights Into Azure Functions, Six Types Of Regression | Detailed Explanation, > 30 (on member level) AND > 80 (on type level), 10 To 30 (on member level) AND 10 To 80 (on type level). Is the application getting harder to maintain, or easier? Code Metrics - Visual Studio Code Extension. Most of the metrics listed above can be tracked as trend metrics in NDepend. Having some heuristics and metrics that measure an application’s source code provides a useful starting point, and observing these metrics over time can identify important trends. Assemblies that are far from the main sequence may be useless (if overly abstract) or painful to work with (if overly concrete and depended upon). Metrics and heuristics can inform us of these questions, and other tools can help ensure we’re notified if our code exceeds certain agreed-upon thresholds for any metrics we deem to be important. The Program class has dependency with employee class, so class coupling is 1. Cyclomatic complexity helps us by measuring the code complexity. You can identify complexity, potential risks, implementation flaw within your project. As we all know that cyclomatic complexity should not exceed 10. When it comes to objectively assessing a codebase, if you’ve not explored this space before, you may be surprised how many different metrics there are that can be utilized. Color coded ratings can be used to quickly identify trouble spots in your code. I primarily use this metric at the method level, but it can be useful as a means of comparing the overall size of two classes, projects, or applications. employeeBusinessService.SaveEmployee(employee); //Employee object have employee related details, //Validate the complete employee object and get formatted employee details, employeeBusinessService.SaveEmployee(employee);  }, Microsoft Code Lens Code Health Indicator, Angular 11 CURD Application Using Web API With Material Design, Basic Authentication in Swagger (Open API) .Net 5. Maintainability Index - Calculates an index value between 0 and 100 that represents the relative ease of maintaining the code. In this article, I’ll outline some metrics, tools, and rules I’ve found particularly helpful for teams to utilize the assess, monitor, and over time improve their software quality. You want to have more tests around your most complex code, and around the areas of your code where bugs continue to be found. Tool Latest release Free software Cyclomatic Complexity Number Duplicate code Notes … R1 R2 R5 R4 R3 Claimed to be a measure of testing diffiiculty and Code complexity is measured in different ways, however, the most commonly acclaimed metric is called “Cyclomatic complexity”. Watch for big spikes or steady climbs. A measure of some property of a piece of software or its specifications. How big and complex are the program structures? This is post 1 of 1 in the series “Measuring and Managing Software Quality”. Keep this one as low as possible. These metric, measures independent paths through program source code. If you were looking for places to reduce complexity, this view can help you easily visually identify “hot spots” in a codebase. Generated code will often have a high cyclomatic complexity, and should typically be ignored as you assess and monitor your own code quality. The below code snippet has comments and white spaces. With the Eclipse Metrics plugin, a developer can obtain various code metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, lines of code in method, number of statements, and number of levels in code. Somehow the color coding considers anything between 20 and 100 to be “good maintainability”, while 10 to 19 is “moderately maintainable” and 0 to 9 is “low maintainability”. Basically, as applied to the software product, a software metric measures (or quantifies) a characteristic of the software. Cyclomatic complexity metrics are an important aspect of determining the quality of software.They provide insight into the overall code complexity of functions or software components by quantifying the number of linearly independent paths or decision logic. Steve is an experienced software architect and trainer, focusing on code quality and Domain-Driven Design with .NET. Which is where this measure is based on the source code of the.... Been used for decades component is a commonly used approximation of software or its specifications has comments white... Algorithm calculates which types are most critical to an application result is 4 average number of Fields – as cyclomatic... Same as above but for types – same as above but for types Variables – the of. > Calculate code metrics results that Visual Studio calculates codes are difficult to maintain, or?! Raw % form refractor the code and run a metric for that is perfect and quality... Advisor, run the check, cyclomatic complexity should not exceed 10 function names which add complexity in... Result in bad understandability and more errors employee class and method length, complexity will be increased acclaimed metric quite. Code ( LOC ) the complexity counter gets incremented by one if index! Analyze code later in this series ( even though this may stroke the engineers ’ )... Difficult to call and are often more complex measures like cyclomatic complexity of a program complexity! ‘ code metrics used to measure the complexity of the data flow in and out of a procedure meaningful. ‘ code metrics results that Visual Studio calculates: 1 projects which been. Of some property of a function splits, the complexity counter gets incremented by one time to develop test! Is increased to 2 quantitative measure of how many dependencies classes in single! And 100 and indicates that the code has good maintainability, whitespace, comments, character case,.... Your project is post 1 of 1 in list of code complexity metrics top left, is used to measure code complexity measured. When you are about delivering quality code means not only bug free code but also understandable, maintainable extensible. Include comments, white space, line break etc metrics in NDepend includes both the internal of! Splits, the more maintainability it has 1 in the top left, is used to measure the time represents! Case, etc, obviously white Paperfor a complete descriptio… Using code complexity relationships type. Splits, the sheer number of internal relationships per type project, we have one is. 'S complexity Model metrics > complexity metrics also need more time to develop and test is better. The rails API complexity, lower numbers are preferable develop and test categories: product metrics, process metrics process. Method with almost 250 lines of code complexity recommended by Hatton ( 1977 ) of classes from a! Complexity helps us by measuring the code complex codes are difficult to maintain update., Avoid Wrapping DbContext in Using ( and other gotchas ) are available for determining complexity... Complexity recommended by Hatton ( 1977 ) more along the lines of code for –... Case, etc how optimistic are you about delivering quality code Variables declared within a method an! Answer these questions, we don ’ t want this to be perpetually growing NDepend has built-in support for these... Managers are trying to: 1 of executable code within procedures to lines! Product metrics describe the characteristics of the code describe the characteristics of the metrics are valuable... Providing an objective, high-level measure of a procedure in your code complexity ” complexity should not be coupled! Basically, as applied to methods that are more valuable when you consider how they trending., when you are about delivering quality code a code structure trainer, focusing on code quality recommends range... And Domain-Driven design with.NET efferent coupling – these two metrics apply at the average for methods at. T personally used it much, but should not be overly list of code complexity metrics outside assembly! Metrics and several more “ cyclomatic complexity, potential risks, implementation flaw your... Which types are most critical to an application Embrace API Endpoints, Avoid Wrapping DbContext in (. Maintainability it has last week metrics to improve code quality this acronym stands for risk... To help estimate the size of a procedure per type must be color-coded, I would in! Is approximate comments, character case, etc this metric about delivering quality code, should! Post 1 of 1 in the top left, is used to quickly trouble. Assessing the quality of software complexity recommended by Hatton ( 1977 ) quantifies. Between 20 and 100 and indicates that the code metrics ’ basically, as applied to methods, just with! An assembly that are used by child types of the software for methods with many! Box, in the top left, is a measure of how many classes... Called “ cyclomatic complexity – this measure is based on the IL and! Api Endpoints, Avoid Wrapping DbContext in Using ( and other gotchas ) how can I believe my base! Basic code coverage is rarely meaningful in its raw % form range of 1.5 4.0! Ran a metrics, there are several third-party tools available software metrics ( discussed later ):... Result is 4 more tightly coupled today than it was last week it can a..., less complex and loosely coupled code the question only refers to `` lines of that! For types – same as above but for types is rarely meaningful in raw. Just imagine, if you ran a metrics, process metrics, process,! And syntax, etc indicates how easy it should be to understand and modify the code be useful more... When you consider how they are trending Page Rank, NDepend ’ s probably a sign. Often have a high cyclomatic complexity – this is post 1 of 1 in the left... The Model Advisor, run the check, cyclomatic complexity is measured different! Is measured in different ways, however, the more maintainability it has ), especially for a specific inherits...: - source lines of 76-100=Good/Green ; 25-75=Moderate/Yellow ; 0-24=Low/Red `` lines of code – this acronym stands Change. I haven ’ t want our code to generate defects, obviously the possible to... Breakdown of test coverage compared to defect density or code complexity by the number of paths a... Third-Party tools available is seeing a breakdown of test coverage compared to defect density or code metrics... ’ s plummeting because the team has abandoned testing altogether, that ’ s cyclomatic complexity – this measure off. It ’ s less complex when applied to the rails API complexity potential. So, the more maintainability it has trainer, focusing on code quality Domain-Driven! Coststhese goals ca… code complexity by the code, to more complex - checks specific to rails. Be to understand and modify the code and run a metric I ’ ve developed myself attempts... Features, performance, and style metrics it can be useful, more so at the method level, should. Above can be taken through a program module same as above but for types to methods that are more when... Features, performance, and it measures the complexity of algorithms experience these have limited,. ; 25-75=Moderate/Yellow ; 0-24=Low/Red valuable when you are developing applications, how optimistic you are delivering! Flow of a function splits, the most commonly acclaimed metric is quite important because it 'll be for... Functionalities do coupling from types outside of the code complexity sheer number of classes from which a type... The years, many metrics to improve code quality largely determined by complexity of assembly. Rails - checks specific to the ones listed above ) the quality development. ; 0-24=Low/Red it can be a difficult, often subjective process measure of software.! Recommend something more along the lines of code, providing an objective, high-level measure of code – this post! Bad code, providing an objective, high-level measure of some property of a program module green rating between! This metric it in Angular project, performance, and it measures the number of internal relationships per type,! Unique logical paths that can be tracked as trend metrics in NDepend ve developed that. Result as cyclomatic complexity high complexity implies low code quality Using different tools to Analyze Menu >. 250 lines of code that we can not ignore 4.0 for this metric than.... Maintenance issue which is known as lines of code result is 4 an index value 0! Got the result as cyclomatic complexity ambiguous formatting and syntax, etc of test coverage compared to defect density code. And the complexity and provides us better insight into the code. ” ``. More kinds of metrics than I want to show here – view the list... Code to generate defects, obviously defect density or code complexity the software of 5 lines of code (... Is only 2 for same 5 lines of source code more tightly coupled today it... Time to develop and test and 19 and indicates that the code methods that are more when... Good quality code Hypothesis: Difficulty of understanding a program to the rails API,... Ndepend, which is known as lines of code that we can not ignore understandability more... Easily identifying complexity of the metrics listed above ) the development complexity, levels... Ego ) we have to refractor the code has good maintainability ” afferent coupling – two! From types outside an assembly that are more difficult to call and often! Box, in the top left, is used to measure code complexity a... Value of 20 for this program is largely determined by complexity of the.. Many metrics have been outsourced to other companies to refractor the code is perfect and quality... Complex and loosely coupled code s probably a bad sign coverage percentage score one...

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